NOTE that this list serves as a sampling of sustainability-related courses offered at Bishop’s University, and that the Academic Calendar should be consulted for accurate and up-to-date course information.

Undergraduate Courses

Environment & Geography Courses

ESG 100 Introduction to Environmental Studies

An introductory approach toward understanding the global environment and the human impact on this environment.

ESG 175 Economic Geography

This course will explore the key elements of major geo-political events, the adoption of innovative cost-saving practices, and the creation and evolution of entrepreneurial networks and industrial clusters, and explore the ongoing debate about the appropriate role of government in an increasingly-globalized world.

ESG 126 Introduction to Human Geography

An introduction to the field of human geography; its scope and methods.

ESG 127 Introduction to Physical Geography

An introduction to the principles and methods of climatology and geomorphology.

ESG 211 Historical Geography of the Eastern Townships

A retrospective approach to the Eastern Townships blending history and landscape.

ESG 224 Human Impact on the Environment

Changing environmental relationships in the modern context of population growth and technological advance. Prerequisite: ESG 100 or ESG 126

ESG 226 Physical Oceanography

An introduction to physical and geological oceanography. Prerequisite: ESG 127

ESG 227 Biogeochemical and Environmental Oceanography

An introduction to marine life and the interaction between the oceans and society at large Prerequisite: ESG 226 or ESG 127

ESG 248 Geography of Food

This course examines the growing harvesting, processing, packaging, transporting, marketing, consumption, and disposal of food and food-related items. Prerequisites: ESG 100 and ESG 126

ESG 249 Resource Management

This course examines the interactions between natural and social processes in the development, use and conservation of natural resources. Prerequisites: ESG 100

ESG 251 Soils and Vegetation

The systematic examination of the development and distribution of the major soil and vegetation types of the world and of the ways in which these elements of the physical environment have become resources subject to varying utilization patterns. Prerequisite: ESG 127

ESG 260 Research Methods

An introduction to research methodology and its application to environment and geography. Prerequisite: ESG 126 and ESG 127

ESG 262 Introduction to Geographic Information Systems

An introduction to geographic information systems including cartographic concepts, basic remote sensing (aerial photography and digital imagery), vector and raster digital spatial data models, data input and editing, database management, structured query language, and elementary spatial analysis. Prerequisites: ESG 126 and ESG 127

ESG 264 Outdoor Recreation

This course examines: (I) theories and concepts concerning the recreational use of natural settings (the human dimensions), (ii) the nature, capabilities and limitations of natural settings (the natural dimensions) and, (iii) the institutional arrangements which exist to manage outdoor recreation settings (the management dimensions), including national parks and protected areas. Prerequisite: ESG 100 or ESG 126

ESG 266 Environmental Policy

An introduction to the field of environmental policy, with an emphasis on the regulation of technological hazards. Prerequisite: ESG 224

ESG 267 Global Environmental Change: a physical perspective

An examination of the general trends and concepts associated with global environmental change using a physical geographic approach. Prerequisite: ESG 100 and ESG 127

ESG 268 The Human Landscape and Environmental Change

This course uses various aspects of environmental change to identify links between the sciences and the humanities. Prerequisite: Any one of ESG 100, ESG 126, ESG 162 or ESG 16

ESG 300 Environmental Studies Seminar

Selected topics in Environmental Studies will be examined. The course allows detailed study of particular areas of environmental research through student-led seminars and general class discussion. Prerequisites: ESG 224 and ESG 267; open only to ESG Honours and Majors in Environmental Studies.

ESG 339 The Canadian Arctic

The ecology of traditional Eskimo occupancy; socio-economic change through contact with explorers, whalemen, traders, missionaries, and administrators.  Demographic centralization; industrial development; Nunamiut and Kabloonamiut; frontier   or   homeland?   The   outlook   for   renewable   resources.   Problems   of   sovereignty over arctic space. Prerequisite: Any one of ESG 100, ESG 126, ESG 162 or ESG 163.

ESG 340 The Circumpolar North

An introduction to the physical and cultural geography of the Circumpolar North. This course will focus upon the cultural and political ecology of the human population in this region. Prerequisite: Any one of ESG 100, ESG 126, ESG 162 or ESG 163

ESG 349 Watershed Management

This course examines integrated watershed management, including assessment of biophysical freshwater systems, implications of natural resource development and land use on water quality and quantity, as well as institutional arrangements and the role of stakeholder involvement in watershed-scale decision-making. Prerequisite: ESG 249

ESG 350 Environmental Justice

An introduction to the field of environmental justice, with an emphasis on fairness and equity in environmental management. Prerequisite: ESG 224

ESG 353 Landscape

This course explores landscapes as products of interacting physical and human processes, and examines how those processes can change landscapes over time. Prerequisite: ESG 126 and ESG 127

ESG 354 Environmental Impact Assessment

This course will examine the theory, methods, regulatory frameworks and social implications of Environmental impact assessment (EIA) with emphasis on recent Canadian case studies. Prerequisite: ESG 249

ESG 358 International Environmental Issues

Environmental   factors   and   their   impact   on   global   agricultural   production, population growth and distribution. Prerequisite: ESG 224

ESG 362 Advanced Geographic Information Systems

Project-based applications stress the utility of advanced GIS analysis in Environment and geography. Prerequisite: ESG 262

ESG 366 Ethical Perspectives on Environmental Problems

An introduction to the major philosophical traditions in the field of environmental ethics: natural law, utilitarianism, virtue theory and deontology. Prerequisite: ESG 126 and ESG 127

ESG 367 Climate Change

The course examines the debate surrounding global climate change with climatic and paleo-climatic perspectives. Prerequisite: ESG 267

ESG 370 Special Topics in Environment and Geography

A lecture/seminar course offered by regular and visiting faculty on environmental/geographical topics related to their research interests. The course will be offered on an occasional basis. Prerequisite:  Open only to Honours and Majors in Environment and Geography.

Sustainable Agriculture and Food Systems Courses

AGR 100 Introduction to Sustainable Agriculture and Food Systems

This course will help students develop an informed critique of conventional agricultural systems. This course will introduce the topics and skills to be learned during the rest of the program in sustainable agriculture and food systems.

AGR 104 An Edible History of Humanity

This course traces food through human history.

AGR 130 Environmental Implications of Agriculture

This course will expose students to the effects of agricultural operations, positive and negative, and introduce various indicators of environmental impact based on farmer’s production methods, and the impact these methods have on emissions to the environment. The goal is an introductory ability to assess environmental impact at the farm level.

AGR 171 Permaculture Design I: Design Principles

This course introduces students to permaculture design principles. Derived from “permanent agriculture”, permaculture is the design and maintenance of agriculturally productive ecosystems which have the diversity, stability, and resilience of natural ecosystems. This course follows a standard worldwide format. Students who successfully complete AGR 171 and AGR 172 will obtain the internationally-recognized “Permaculture Design Certificate (PDC)”.

AGR 172 Permaculture Design II: Design Project

AGR 172 is a continuation and deepening of the design principles and applications covered in AGR 171. Students in AGR 172 will perform various permaculture design practices in a variety of settings, for various needs. The course involves lab and field work, and requires completion of a significant design project. Students who complete both AGR 171 and AGR 172 will obtain an internationally recognized “Permaculture Design Certificate (PDC)”, enabling them to work as a certified perm culturalist. An extra fee is required for the certificate. Pre-requisite: AGR 171

AGR 174 Sustainable Agriculture Practicum I

This YEAR 1 Field Course occurs during the Spring Session, May to mid-June at the Campus Educational Farm. It involves planning the growing season, preparing the agricultural gardens, and planting, pruning and other early season activities. Pre-requisite: AGR 130 or Permission of the Department

AGR 175 Sustainable Agriculture Internship I

This course can replace AGR 174 Sustainable Agriculture Practicum I for qualified students who have arranged a practical agricultural experience or placement equivalent to that provided in AGR 174, to occur off-campus. Pre-requisites: AGR 130 and Permission of the Department

AGR 201 Market Gardening

This course explores the principles and practices associated with a Market Garden enterprise: a small-scale, intensive production of fruits, berries, vegetables, flowers, herbs, perennials, shrubs, seeds, bulbs and tubers, mushrooms and fungi, and more, as cash crops. This course includes case studies, field trips to Bishop’s Campus Educational Farm, the Bishop’s Greenhouse, and local Market Garden enterprises.

AGR 202 Culture and Food

This course presents a social perspective on food and culture. It explores the distinctiveness of foods and food preparation within different cultures and their roles in the building of social identity. In a complementary way, the course also explores the universality of human experiences with food.

AGR 203 Healthy Nutrition

This course surveys the basic principles of human nutrition, and is intended for students with limited science background. The primary aim of the course is to clarify the profound relationship between nutrition and human health, both current health and future health.

AGR 204 Community Gardens

This course examines various urban gardens (e.g. community gardens, war-time victory gardens, school, senior’s residence, hospital, rooftop and other urban gardens) and addresses opportunities and impediments to starting and maintaining such a garden, as well as the social and environmental benefits to community gardening. Field experience will take place at Bishop’s Campus Educational Farm, as well as at local community gardens. Pre-requisites: ESG 100 or AGR 100

AGR 210 Food Science

This course provides an overview of the science of food preparation and transformation, focusing on the principles of sustainability: waste reduction, nutrient retention, minimization of packaging. Pre-requisites: BIO 194 or BIO 196 and CHM 191 and CHM 192

AGR 220 Soil Science

This course provides an introductory survey of soils and their management: properties of soils, soil formation, description, and use. The course focuses on the role of soils in sustainable agriculture, causes and processes of degradation (including erosion, pollution, and nutrient depletion), and the maintenance of healthy soils. Pre-requisites: BIO 194 or BIO 196 and AGR 130 Co-requisite: AGL 220 – only offered once that SAFS majors are approved

AGR 230 Ecological Agriculture

This course has various concepts, such as: diversification to maximize biomass production; waste and loss minimization techniques; by-product recycling; encouragement of decomposers and nitrogen fixers ; maintenance of soil fertility by humus application, crop rotations and correct application of farmyard manure; processing of farm products on the farm with direct sales to local consumers; integrative, ecological control of pests and weeds, ethical animal husbandry; utilization of wild-life and woodland; farm energy production off-grid; and minimization of capital investments. Pre-requisite: AGR 130 Co-requisite: AGL 230 – only offered once the SAFS majors are approved.

AGR 270 Special Topics/Field Course in Sustainable Agriculture and Food Systems I

A special topics seminar/field course offered by regular and visiting faculty on topics related to their research interests in sustainable agriculture and food systems. Topics are determined by the instructor and may include case-studies, projects and farm and agri-business visits, with the result that content of the course varies from one offering to the next. The course will be offered on an occasional basis. Pre-requisites: AGR 100 and AGR 130

AGR 274 Sustainable Agriculture Practicum II

This intensive YEAR 2 Field Course occurs during the Summer Session, mid-June to end-July, at the Campus Educational Farm. It involves managing and maintaining the farm and gardens (under the direction of the Farm Technician), harvesting and distributing the early crops, and planning and designing future projects. Pre-requisite: AGR 174 or Permission of the Department

AGR 275 Sustainable Agriculture Internship II

This course can replace AGR 274 Sustainable Agriculture Practicum II for qualified students who have arranged a practical agricultural experience or placement equivalent to that provided in AGR 274, to occur off-campus. Pre-requisites: AGR 174 and Permission of the Department

AGR 303 Food Preparation and Preservation

This course presents an overview of food processing and food preservation, and associated food processing unit operations. As part of this course, students will have the opportunity to obtain their Hygiene and Food Safety – Food Handler Certificate from the Quebec government (at extra cost).

AGR 304 Agritourism

This course explores the development of the food and wine tourism industry, the concept and size of agritourism, food and wine business development, marketing and broad trends affecting tourism enterprises within this sector – with case studies and field visits within the Eastern Townships region of Quebec.

Sociology Courses

SOC 294 Sociology of Tourism

The course will explore tourism, in all its forms and the impact of traveling, both positive and negative, on cultures, sustainability and the environment.

SOC 296 Globalism and Culture

An introduction to key concepts for the current understanding and applications of cultural and social globalization.

SOC 295 Social Inequality

This course addresses concepts of social and cultural sustainability. Key questions concerning the environmental impacts of social organization as well as options for change will be considered.

SOC 381 Media and the Environment

This   course   examines   processes   of   technologically   mediated   interaction   at the macro-sociological level.  Trends and structures of mass culture and communications are examined in relation to how we relate to nature. Prerequisite: Students should have 9 credits in Sociology or permission of the instructor.

SOC 395 Advanced Theories of Social Sustainability

Advanced seminar on the dynamics of global and local relationships regarding the nature of sustainable societies.

Liberal Arts Courses

LIB 214 Ecological Crisis and the Struggle for Environmental Justice

Given that new generations will play a decisive role in addressing the ecological crisis, this course will explore international dimensions of the historical, philosophical and cultural background of various forms of the human relationship with nature, as well as examine some of the theories (agro-ecology, eco-feminism, deep ecology, emergence, etc.) and kinds of social movement organizing (Greenpeace,, Leap, etc.) that reply to the ecological crisis.

Business Courses

BMK 350 Marketing Strategies for Environment Sustainability

This course aims to provide a forum for students to consider innovative approaches to advancing environmental sustainability through the marketing function of organizations. The course is designed to help students build effective strategies for gaining competitive advantage through environmentally sustainable practices which need to be built into the core areas of strategic marketing.

Economics Courses

ECO 175 Economic Geography

This course will explore the key elements of major geo-political events, the adoption of innovative cost-saving practices, and the creation and evolution of entrepreneurial networks and industrial clusters, and explore the ongoing debate about the appropriate role of government in an increasingly-globalized world.

ECO 206 Agricultural Economics

Application   of   microeconomics   principles   to   the   problems   of   agricultural   production and resource use, agricultural supply and demand analysis, price determination, market structure and income distribution in competitive and imperfectly competitive markets. Prerequisites: ECO 102, ECO 103

ECO 237 Economics of the Environment

Application of concepts and methods of economic analysis to environmental problems. Pros and cons of selected policies for environmental protection. Economic growth and environmental decay. Private vs social costs of environmental decay.

ECO 322 Real Estate Economics

This course provides students with an understanding of two essential components to real estate analysis.  First, it introduces the techniques of investment and statistical analysis in a real estate valuation context. Second, it looks at the economics behind real estate price fluctuations. Prerequisite: ECO 102

ECO 337 Ecological Economics

This course explores the principles underlying a truly sustainable ecological economy in a “full world”.  Intended for students who have completed at least 45 credits at the university, including at least 12 in economics. Prerequisites: ECO 102 and ECO 103.

Biology Courses

BIO 111 Organic Gardening

This course is an introduction to organic and environment-friendly gardening, combining lectures and a hands-on-practicum. At the end of this course, students should be able to set-up and run a garden using environment-friendly techniques and know how to harvest, handle and store crops.

BIO 194 General Biology for the Social and Human Sciences

This course provides an introduction to biology for students without a strong science background. Topics include: Scientific method, chemistry of life, cell structure, cell metabolism, photosynthesis, origin of life, evolution, genetics, reproduction, diversity of life, ecology, and ecosystems.

Note: This course is open to the general public and may be taken by non-DNS students for science credit. However, students in any of the science majors may only take this course as a free elective, and may not count this course for science credit. It is offered in the summer semester. Co-requisite: BIL 111

BIO 207 Introduction to Evolution and Ecology

This course will start by looking at the development of modern evolutionary theory before exploring natural selection and speciation.  This course will then explore some of the basic principles of ecology, including species interactions such as predation and competition, and how these interactions help structure the complex web of life that helps form ecological communities and ecosystems.

BIO 211 Sustainable Organic Agriculture

The objective of this course is to introduce students to the concepts and techniques of organic gardening through an integrated and sustainable approach. The course includes lecture classes as well as practical hands-on activities in biology laboratory JOH 320, JOH greenhouse and the Biology outdoor garden, where students will be expected to apply some of the techniques discussed in class to real life situations. Pre or Co requisites: BIO205 and BIO206 or with permission of the instructor if the student can demonstrate a suitable background knowledge of the necessary material. Co-requisite BIL211. This course may not be taken for credit by students who have already completed BIL111.

BIO 327 Advanced Ecology

This ecology course focuses on understanding the relationships between organisms and the strategies they use to survive, reproduce, and interact with their environment. This course will expand on the fundamental theories of ecology seen in BIO 207 with the application to real life data and analysis. Prerequisite: BIO 207 Students with credit for BIO 217 cannot receive credit for BIO 327.

BIO 331 Freshwater Biology

This course will expose students to the biological importance and diversity of freshwater systems.  Class material will look at both the biotic and abiotic components of aquatic systems as well as their interactions. Prerequisite or Co-requisite: BIO 205; BIO 207; Co-requisite: BIL 331

BIO 358 Animal Behaviour

This course will build on this most basic need to watch and understand animal behaviour, but will do so from a more scientific approach. Prerequisite: BIO 205, BIO 207 Offered in odd-numbered winters

BIO 354 Insect Biodiversity

The main goal of this course is to teach the students how to collect, preserve and identify insects, especially those found in eastern North America. Once they have completed the course, students should be able to identify most commonly encountered insects at least to the family level and recognize those that are beneficial or potentially harmful. Prerequisite: BIO 205. Offered in even-numbered autumns.

BIO 392 Experiential Learning in Biodiversity & Ecology

Students in the Biodiversity & Ecology program may receive credit for working under the tutelage of a mentor in a field directly related to their area of study. This course is only eligible to students in good standing and if available positions are available. Students may not work for salary and may not work concurrently in an area directly related to their honors project.

Mathematics Courses

MAT 103 Environmental Modeling

The course will teach students to apply mathematical modeling principles and techniques to problems arising in the environmental sciences. Students will gain some understanding of basic mathematical models and techniques employed in the environmental sciences, and will practice the important skill of interpreting the results obtained from these models.

Physics Courses

PHY 335 Environmental Physics

This quantitative, calculus-based, course discusses fundamental environmental problems within a physical context. Prerequisites: PHY 207.

Graduate courses

Micro-Program in Climate Change

ESG 502 Sustainable Agriculture and Climate Change

The purpose of this course is to examine the nexus of agriculture and climate change.  What are the impacts that climate change is having on agriculture, and what are the impacts that agriculture is having on climate change?

ESG 525: The Anthropocene

The course material will be centered around a project the class undertakes that involves the study of human impacts in the Eastern Townships using a variety of data sources.

ESG 526 Environmental Impacts of Climate Change and Human Activities on the Oceans

The course will examine society’s relationship with the oceans, especially in coastal zones. The goal of the course is to increase students’ awareness of the major environmental issues presently affecting the oceans and the challenges facing decision makers when dealing with the impacts of climate change on the oceans (e.g., sea level rise, saltwater intrusions into aquifers, fisheries, etc.).

ESG 561 Arctic and Antarctic Environmental Change

The polar environments, especially the Arctic, are undoing change at a rate far faster than most other regions. This course will examine the development of these extreme environments and examine what can be expected for the future.

ESG 570 Special Topics in Climate and Environmental Change

A graduate-level lecture/seminar course offered by regular and visiting faculty on topics related to their research interests in climate and environmental change. Topics are determined by the instructor therefore content of the course varies year by year. The course will be offered on an occasional basis.

ESG 573 Energy and the Environment

This course introduces the concepts of energy and power and their units and reviews energy sources, fossil fuels, their environmental impacts, and resource consumption.

ESG 575 Tropical Environments and Climate Change

This   course   attempts   to   provide   an   overview   of   the   tropics   as   a   unique   environment and one that poses special problems to its human occupants. The course will provide a review of tropical climatology, soils, and biomes, in addition to discussing more applied issues such as forestry and agriculture.

ESG 577 The Health Impacts of Climate Change

The course will examine the overall impact of environmental degradation, displacement and loss of livelihood on the general physical and mental health of populations.