Faculty

Faculty

Photo of Dr. Gordon Barker

Dr. Gordon Barker

Associate Professor

Associate Professor Educated at McGill University (BA Economics, BA Honours in History), and the College of William and Mary in Virginia (MA and PhD. in History), Gordon Barker began his career at Bishop’s in 2006. Specializing in African American, Revolutionary America, and Civil War Era history, he has published two major books, a book chapter in an edited volume published recently by the University Press of Florida, and several articles and reviews in leading scholarly journals.…Contact Information and full bio
Phone: 819-822-9600 ext. 2306

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Associate Professor Educated at McGill University (BA Economics, BA Honours in History), and the College of William and Mary in Virginia (MA and PhD. in History), Gordon Barker began his career at Bishop’s in 2006. Specializing in African American, Revolutionary America, and Civil War Era history, he has published two major books, a book chapter in an edited volume published recently by the University Press of Florida, and several articles and reviews in leading scholarly journals. In 2010, he received the Virginia Historical Society’s prestigious William M.E. Rachal Award.In 2014, he received Honorable Mention for the Rudnick Book Prize awarded by the New England American Studies Association. He has also received numerous teaching excellence awards and the Bishop’s University Emerging Scholar Award. He teaches the American surveys and upper-level thematic courses on African Americans, the American Civil War and Reconstruction, and Women in Early America. Dr. Barker is President of the Eastern Townships Resource Institute.

Research

My current work focuses on slavery, race relations, and black agency during the Revolutionary, Antebellum, and Civil War Eras. Building on the research that I undertook for The Imperfect Revolution and Fugitive Slaves and the Unfinished Revolution, I am working on a third book exploring the increasing militancy of black abolitionists in the North during the late antebellum period as well as a film script on Fugitive Slaves.  My current book project focuses on the ideology of leading black abolitionists and how the freedom fights of female fugitive slaves and kidnapped free black women catalyzed the antislavery movement in the North.

Publications

My recent publications include the following works:

Monographs

Fugitive Slaves and the Unfinished American Revolution, Eight Cases, 1848-1856 (Jefferson, NC: McFarland Publishers, 2013).

The Imperfect Revolution: Anthony Burns and the Landscape of Race in Antebellum America (Kent: Kent State University Press, 2010).

Book Chapters

“Revisiting British Principle Talk: Antebellum Black Expectations and Racism in Early Ontario,” in Damian Alan Pargas (ed.) Fugitive Slaves and Spaces of Freedom in North America, 1800-60 (University Press of Florida, 2018).

Articles

“Secession and Slavery as a Positive Good: The Impact of the Anthony Burns Drama in Boston on Virginia,” Virginia Magazine of History and Biography (2010) Volume 118, No. 2.

Reviews

Jim Crow North: The Struggle for Equality in Antebellum New England by Richard Archer, Civil War Book Reviews (2018)

An Indispensable Liberty: the Fight for Freedom of Speech in Nineteenth-Century America edited by Mary M. Cronin, Journal of Southern History (2017)

“Oberlin Resolve: Dying for a Holy Cause,” Review of The “Colored Hero” of Harper’s Ferry: John Anthony Copeland and the War Against Slavery by Steven Lubet, Civil War Book Reviews (2016)

From Slavery to the Cooperative Commonwealth: Labor and Republican Liberty in the Nineteenth Century by Alex Gourevitch, Journal of Global Slavery (2016), Volume 1, No. 1.

African Canadians in Union Blue: Volunteering for the Cause in the Civil War by Richard Reid, Canadian Journal of History (2015), Volume 50, No. 3.

I Freed Myself: African American Self-Emancipation in the Civil War by David Williams, American Historical Review (2015), Volume 120, No. 2

The Road to Black Ned’s Forge: A Story of Race, Sex, and Trade on the Colonial American Frontier by Turk McCleskey, Virginia Magazine of History and Biography (2014), Volume 122, No. 4.

“Race and Freedom on Pennsylvania’s Borderland, 1820 through Reconstruction,” a review of On the Edge of Freedom: The Fugitive Slave Issue in South Central Pennsylvania, 1820-1870 by David G. Smith. H-CivWar, H-Net Reviews (January) 2014.

Old World, New World: America and Europe in the Age of Jefferson edited by Leonard J. Sadosky, Peter Nicolaisen, Peter S. Onuf, and Andrew J. O’Shaughnessy, Journal of Southern History (2012) Volume 78, No. 1.

Crusade Against Slavery: Edward Coles, Pioneer of Freedom by Kurt E. Leichtle and Bruce G. Carveth, Virginia Magazine of History and Biography (2011), Volume 119, No.4.

Photo of Dr. Cristian Berco

Dr. Cristian Berco

Full Professor – Department Chairperson

Cristian Berco (Ph.D. Arizona, 2002) joined Bishop’s in 2004. His research focuses on the social history of the body, mainly through work on sexuality, disease and ethnicity. His first book Sexual Hierarchies, Public Status (2007) examines sodomy trials in the Aragonese Inquisition, while his second one, From Body to Community, focuses on venereal disease as a lived reality.…Contact Information and full bio
Phone: 819-822-9600 ext. 2412

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Cristian Berco (Ph.D. Arizona, 2002) joined Bishop’s in 2004. His research focuses on the social history of the body, mainly through work on sexuality, disease and ethnicity. His first book Sexual Hierarchies, Public Status (2007) examines sodomy trials in the Aragonese Inquisition, while his second one, From Body to Community, focuses on venereal disease as a lived reality. He has also published in various academic journals and edited collections on the social dimensions of the early modern syphilis epidemic. Currently, he is working on the neurophysiological processes undergirding the Spanish Inquisition. Dr. Berco teaches the history of medieval and early modern Europe, and colonial and modern Latin America.

Research

The Body and Society in early modern Spain

Dr. Berco’s research program focuses on the body and society in the early modern Hispanic world. Though he has published widely on a variety of topics, including the decriminalization of sodomy in nineteenth-century Argentina and gender identity and self discipline in Baroque Spain, his main interests entail the following:

  1. The Body, Sexuality and Society, specifically male homosexual behaviour, its reliance on gendered constructs, and its uneasy relationship to social status in early modern societies. Gleaned from Spanish trial records, this research focuses on the border between the hierarchies constructed through the sexed body and those available from public understandings of status. Dr. Berco’s book on the subject, Sexual Hierarchies, Public Status: Men, Sodomy, and Society in Golden Age Spain argues that, though homosexual behaviour was widespread due to a penetrative conceptualization of masculinity, public anger was mobilized into trials when these sexual relationships violated normalized power relations, as in the case of Muslim slaves sodomizing Christian adolescents. At the same time, because of the diffuse nature of an inquisitorial trial, magistrates did not always follow through on the public intent to punish, effectively shielding some groups like the clergy from harsh sentences. Dr. Berco has also published separately on the intimate connection between patriarchal forms of power and sodomy, both in practice and in terms of the constructs informing them.
  2. The Body, Disease and Society. This research focuses on syphilis and its sociocultural implications as a lived illness. By combining institutional and notarial records, this research examines this chronic disease in its full personal and social dimensions. Dr. Berco’s book From Body to Community: Venereal Disease and Society in Baroque Spain traces the complex lives of syphilis patients at Toledo’s Hospital de Santiago, moving from the somatic aspects of infection and treatment to the sociocultural implications for patients living with this chronic illness in terms of marriage, work, and community relationships.
  3. The Body, the Brain and Inquisitors. This new research interest grew out of combining Dr. Berco’s recent work on the perception of the clothes body and his collaboration with choreographer Isabelle Van Grimde on the body and its relationship to vision and movement. Relying on novel methodologies from the burgeoning field of neurohistory, Dr. Berco is thus currently focusing on historicizing the inquisitorial brain. Focusing mainly on sensory perception, motor-emotional control, and cognition, this research has already led to the publication of “Perception and the Mulatto Body in Inquisitorial Spain: A Neurohistory,” Past & Present 231, no. 1 (2016): 33-60”. Dr. Berco is currently continuing this work with an eye to writing a monograph on the inquisitorial brain.

Publications

Book

From Body to Community: Venereal Disease and Society in Baroque Spain (Toronto, University of Toronto Press, 2016)

  • Winner: American Association for the History of Medicine Welch Medal (2018)
  • Winner: European Association for the History of Medicine and Health Book Prize (2017)
  • Finalist: Canadian Historical Association Ferguson Prize (2017)

Sexual Hierarchies, Public Status: Men, Sodomy, and Society in Spain’s Golden Age (University of Toronto Press, January 2007).

Articles in Journals and Chapters in Edited Collections

“Fashioning Disease: Narrative and the Sick Body in the Spanish Inquisition,” in Hilaire Kallendorf, ed., A Companion to the Spanish Renaissance (Leiden: Brill, 2019), pp. 205-232

“Determining Insanity in the Inquisition: Sensory Perception and Legal Culture in Seventeenth-Century Lima,” eHumanista: Journal of Iberian Studies 36 (2017): 42-61.

Perception and the Mulatto Body in Inquisitorial Spain: A Neurohistory,” Past & Present 231, no. 1 (2016): 33-60.

“The Great Pox, Symptoms, and Social Bodies in Early Modern Spain,” Social History of Medicine 28, no. 2 (2015): 225-244.

“Miscegenation” and “Sodomy”,  in Evonne Levy and Kenneth Mills, eds., Lexikon of the Hispanic Baroque: Technologies of a Transatlantic Cultural Transfer (Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 2014), pp. 219-20 and 324-5 respectively.

“The Many Faces of Female Discipline: Gender Control, Subversion and the Nun-Confessor Relationship in Golden Age Barcelona,” in Manuela Scarci, ed., Creating Women: Representation, Self-Representation, and Agency in the Renaissance (Toronto, Centre for Reformation and Renaissance Studies, 2013), pp. 149-65.

“Syphilis, Sex, and Marriage in Early Modern Spain,” Journal of Early Modern History 15, no. 3 (2011): 223-53.

“Crossing Borders: Identity, Difference and Community,” Journal of Eastern Township Studies 37 (Fall 2011)

“Textiles as Social Texts: Syphilis, Material Culture and Gender in Golden Age Spain,” Journal of Social History 44, no. 3 (Spring 2011): 785-810.

With Stephanie Fink De Backer, coauthor. “Queerness, Syphilis and Enlightenment in Eighteenth Century Madrid,” Revista Canadiense de Estudios Hispanicos 35, no. 1 (2010): 31-48.

“Producing Patriarchy: Male Homosexuality and Gender in Early Modern Spain,” Journal of the History of Sexuality 17, no. 3 (September 2008): 351-376.

“The Masks of Normalcy: Homosexual Behaviour, Syphilis, and Decline in Juan Calvo’s Valencia,” in Kenneth Borris and G. S. Rousseau, eds., The Sciences of Homosexuality in Early Modern Europe (New York: Routledge, 2007), pp. 92-113

“Social Control and its Limits: Sodomy, Local Sexual Economies, and Inquisitors during Spain’s Golden Age,” Sixteenth Century Journal 36, no. 2 (2005): 331-358.

“Juana Pimentel, the Mendoza Family, and the Crown,” in Helen Nader, ed., Power and Gender in Renaissance Spain: The Mendoza Women (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2004), pp. 27-47.

“Revealing the Other: Moriscos, Crime, and Local Politics in Toledo’s Hinterland in the Late Sixteenth Century,” Medieval Encounters  8, no. 2-3 (2002): 135-159.

“Between Piety and Sin: Zaragoza’s Confraternity of San Roque, Syphilis and Sodomy,” Confraternitas 13, no. 2 (Fall 2002): 3-16.

“Silencing the Unmentionable: Non Reproductive Sex and the Creation of a Civilized Argentina, 1860-1900,” The Americas 58, no. 3 (January 2002): 419-441.

Photo of Dr. Osire Glacier

Dr. Osire Glacier

Professor

Osire Glacier (Ph.D. McGill University, Montréal, 2010) teaches in the History Department and the Religion Department. She teaches courses in Islam, Women in Islam and Politics and Religion in the Middle East and North Africa. Her research focuses on Moroccan women’s history, politics of gender and sexuality in postcolonial Morocco, and politics of human rights in postcolonial Morocco.…Contact Information and full bio

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Osire Glacier (Ph.D. McGill University, Montréal, 2010) teaches in the History Department and the Religion Department. She teaches courses in Islam, Women in Islam and Politics and Religion in the Middle East and North Africa. Her research focuses on Moroccan women’s history, politics of gender and sexuality in postcolonial Morocco, and politics of human rights in postcolonial Morocco. She is the author of several monographs, among which Le sexe nié, féminité, masculinité et sexualité au Maroc (Montréal : Pleine Lune, 2019), which was published in English as Femininity, Masculinity and Sexuality in Morocco (Palgrave Macmillan, 2017), Femmes, Islam et Occident (Montréal : Pleine Lune, 2018), Les droits humains au Maroc : entre discours et réalité (Tarik Éditions, 2015), Universal Rights, Systemic Violations and Cultural Relativism in Morocco (Palgrave Macmillan, 2013), and Political Women in Morocco: Then and Now (Africa World Press, 2013), which was published in French as Femmes politiques au Maroc: d’hier à aujourd’hui (Tarik Éditions, 2013).

Her blog, http://www.etudesmarocaines.com, aims at disseminating academic knowledge about North African issues within the general public.

Fields of research

  • Women, gender, sexuality in North Africa
  • Women’s history in North Africa
  • Human-rights history and politics in North Africa
  • Intercultural relations in Quebec

Scholarly research

Peer-reviewed books

Féminin, masculin : photos d’affiches publicitaires
Preface: Florence Montreynaud
(Saint-Joseph-du-Lac/Montreal: M. Éditeur, Sept. 2019)

Le sexe nié: le féminin, le masculin et la sexualité au Maroc et à Hollywood
(Montreal: Pleine Lune, 2019) (Casablanca: Croisée des chemins, 2020)

Femmes, Islam et Occident
(Montreal: Pleine Lune, 2018)

Femininity, Masculinity and Sexuality in Morocco and Hollywood: The Negated Sex
(New York: Palgrave Macmillan Press, 2017)

Les droits humains au Maroc entre discours et réalité
(Casablanca: Tarik Éditions, 2015)

Universal Rights, Systemic Violations and Cultural Relativism in Morocco
(New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013)

  • Trans. Valerie Martin
  • Foreword: Dr. François Crépeau, United Nations Special Rapporteur and Hans & Tamar Oppenheimer Professor in Public International Law, Faculty of Law, McGill University
  • Preface: Philippe Tremblay, Director for Legal Affairs, Lawyers Without Borders
  • Epilogue: Dr. Alex Neve, Secretary General of Amnesty International Canada

Des femmes politiques d’hier à aujourd’hui
(Casablanca: Tarik Éditions, 2013)

Political Women in Morocco: Then and Now
(Trenton: Africa World Press, 2013)
Trans. Valerie Martin

Articles in peer-reviewed journals

“Kharboucha, poète, chanteuse et militante des Oulad Zayd”
Horizons maghrébins 75 (2016): 71–76
Presses universitaires du Midi (PUM), Université Toulouse – Jean Jaurès, Toulouse, France

“Arab Revolutions from the Perspectives of Women”
Journal of New Media Studies in the Middle East and North Africa 2 (2013): 1–37
Northeastern University, Boston, United States

“Power and Production of Knowledge: The Case Study of Moroccan Feminism”
Journal of New Media Studies in the Middle East and North Africa 1 (2012): 1–9
Northeastern University, Boston, United States

“Les droits fondamentaux des femmes marocaines entre la loi islamique et le droit international des droits de la personne”
Revue juridique Thémis 43.1 (2009): 205–17
Université de Montréal, Montreal

“Les enjeux qui sous-tendent le relativisme culturel des droits humains, Charte arabe des droits de l’homme et Déclaration islamique universelle des droits de l’homme”
Revue juridique Thémis 39.3 (2005): 597–620
Université de Montréal, Montreal

Peer-reviewed online publications

“Cultural Immobilism in Morocco”
Revue Histoire engagée (Oct. 2016)
histoireengagee.ca

“The Veil: Historical Perspectives”
Revue Histoire engagée (Feb. 2011)
histoireengagee.ca

Book chapters

“The Impact of Impunity for Violating Cultural Rights”
Ed. Anthony Chase, Routledge Handbook on Human Rights and the Middle East and North Africa (Oxfordshire: Routledge Books, 2016), 373–86.

“Moroccan Feminism as Universal Feminism”
Ed. Trevor Getz, African Voices of the Global Past (Colorado: Westview Press, 2013), 169–203

Articles in conference proceedings

“Pouvoir et production du savoir: le cas du féminisme marocain”
Dir. Fatima Sadiqi, Femmes et nouveaux medias dans la region méditerranéenne
(Fez: Imprimeries universitaires/Image Pub, 2012), 47–63

Entries in peer-reviewed encyclopedias

Fatima al-Fihri (?–880), founder of the Al-Qarawiyyin Mosque
Zaynab al-Nafzawiyya (?–1072), Almoravid queen
Princesse Fannu (?–1147), Almohad female soldier
Malika al-Fassi (1919–2007), first modern feminist
Halima Embarek Warzazi (1933–), first female diplomat
Chaïbia Tallal (1929–2004), illiterate, yet famous painter
Touria Chaoui (1936–1956), first female pilot
Merieme Chadid (1969–), first female astronomer
Dictionary of African Biography (New York: Oxford University Press, 2011)

“Sexual Harassment: Arab States”
Encyclopedia of Women in Islamic Cultures, vol. 3: Family, Body, Sexuality and Health
(Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers, 2006), 372–74

Scholarly presentations

“The Impact of the Construction of Sexuality on Women’s Rights in Morocco” (Nov. 2016)
MESA’s 2016 Annual Meeting, Boston, United States

“When Official Culture Delegitimizes Human Rights: The Case of Morocco” (May 2016)
84e Congrès de l’ACFAS, UQAM, Montreal, Canada

“Tracing Women in Moroccan History” (Aug. 2015)
7e Congrès international des recherches féministes dans la francophonie
UQAM, Montreal

“Power and Resistance: The Case of Moroccan Political Women” (May 2014)
82e Congrès de l’ACFAS, Concordia University, Montreal

“Moroccan Women, Symbolic Violence and Political Violence” (May 2014)
Violence and Society: Interdisciplinary Analysis
82e Congrès de l’ACFAS, Concordia University, Montreal

“Female Subaltern Identities in Morocco” (Aug. 2012)
The Invention of Subaltern Identities in the South
Lucienne-Cnockaert Chair and the History Department
Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke

“Women’s Contributions to Arab Spring” (July 2012)
Summer School, CERIUM, Université de Montréal, Montreal

“Culture or Masculine Dominance? The Case of Moroccan Women” (June 2012)
12th International Conference on Diversity in Organizations, Communities and Nations
University of British Columbia, Vancouver

“Moroccan Women: From Anti-colonial Struggles to the Years of Lead” (Nov. 2011)
Decolonization in the Third World: Challenges, Hopes and Limitations
Lucienne-Cnockaert Chair and the History Department
Université de Sherbrooke, Campus Longueuil, Longueuil

“Power and Knowledge: Moroccan Feminism as a Case Study” (June 2011)
Women and New Media in the Mediterranean Region International Conference, ISIS Center for Women and Development, Fez, Morocco

“Gender, Colonialism and Human Rights in the Middle East” (May 2010)
78ème Congrès de l’ACFAS, Université de Montréal, Canada

“Human Rights: An Imperialistic Product?” (Mar. 2010)
Centre d’études sur le droit international et la mondialisation (CEDIM)
Department of Legal Studies, Faculty of Political Science and Law
UQAM, Montreal

“Sexuality, Imperialism and Human Rights in the Middle East” (Nov. 2009)
MESA’s 43rd Annual Meeting, Boston, United States

“Human Rights as a Global Pursuit of Universal Dignity” (Oct. 2009)
Towards the Dignity of Difference: Neither the Clash of Civilizations nor the End of History
University of Edmonton & the United Nations University in Japan, Edmonton, Canada

“The Contribution of Arab States to Universal Rights” (Nov. 2007)
MESA’s 41st Annual Meeting, Palais des congrès de Montréal, Montreal

“Arab States and Universal Rights” (May 2007)
75e Congrès de l’ACFAS, UQTR, Trois-Rivières

“Women’s Rights between Islamic Law and International Law of Human Rights” (Apr. 2007)
Réseau Moyen-Orient (CÉRIUM), in collaboration with the Department of Political Science, Université de Montréal, Montreal

“Gender, Islam and the West” (Sept. 2005)
2005 Middle East & Central Asia Politics, Economics and Society Conferences
University of Utah, Salt Lake City, États-Unis

“Arab Charter of Human Rights and Universal Islamic Declaration of Human Rights: Readings and Consequences for Human Rights” (Sept. 2004)
2004 Middle East & Central Asia Politics, Economics and Society Conferences
University of Utah, Salt Lake City, United States

Knowledge dissemination – selective list

Contribution to documentary: “Malika al-Fassi and Modern Feminism in Morocco” (Feb. 2017)
Série documentaire 10 Femmes de notre Histoire, Chaîne de télévision 2M, Morocco
Scenario: Layla Triqui
Artistic Director: Layla Triqui
Production: Ali’N production et 2M
Producer: Nabil Ayouch
Executive Producer: Amine Benjalloun
Idea and concept: Nadia Kamali Marouazi

Contribution to documentary: “Khnata Bint Bakkar, Vizir and Ruler de Facto” (Oct. 2016)
Série documentaire 10 Femmes de notre Histoire, Chaîne de télévision 2M, Morocco
Scenario: Layla Triqui and Yasmina Rhoulami
Artistic Director: Layla Triqui
Production: Ali’N production et 2M
Producer: Nabil Ayouch
Executive Producer: Amine Benjalloun
Idea and concept: Nadia Kamali Marouazi

Contribution to documentary: “Sayyida al-Hurra, Tetouan’s Medieval Ruler” (May 2016)
Série documentaire 10 femmes de notre Histoire, Chaîne de télévision 2M, Morocco
Scenario: Meryem Reggab and Layla Triqui
Artistic Director: Layla Triqui
Idea and Concept: Nadia Kamali Marouazi
Production: Ali’N Production and Chaîne 2M
Producer: Nabil Ayouch
Executive Producer: Amine Benjalloun

http://www.2m.ma/PROGRAMMES/Des-Histoires-et-des-Hommes/Documentaires/Figures-Historiques-Essayida-Al-Hourra

Round table: “Feminism and Religion” (Mar. 2009)
Canal VOX Television, Émission “Parole et vie”, Montreal, Canada

Photo of Dr. Jean Manore

Dr. Jean Manore

Full Professor

Jean Manore (Ph.D. Ottawa, 1995) came to Bishop’s in 2001. Her research interests focus on the historical understandings of Aboriginal and Treaty rights and the tensions between environmental advocacy and technological development. Her publications include Cross-Currents: Hydro-Electricity and the Engineering of Northern Ontario and numerous articles; she is also a co-editor of The Culture of Hunting.…Contact Information and full bio
Phone: 819-822-9600 ext. 2623

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Jean Manore (Ph.D. Ottawa, 1995) came to Bishop’s in 2001. Her research interests focus on the historical understandings of Aboriginal and Treaty rights and the tensions between environmental advocacy and technological development. Her publications include Cross-Currents: Hydro-Electricity and the Engineering of Northern Ontario and numerous articles; she is also a co-editor of The Culture of Hunting. In addition to her academic interests, Dr. Manore has produced numerous research reports for the federal and Ontario governments. Currently, she is exploring the historical understandings of the terms of Treaty #9, signed between the federal, Ontario and First Nations of northern and northwestern Ontario, in 1905-06. Dr. Manore teaches post-Confederation Canadian and Public History.

Research

  1. Aboriginal Treaty Rights and historical memory: Treaty #9 and the process of colonization. The First Nations, of what is now called northern and northwestern Ontario, signed a treaty with the federal and provincial governments in 1905 and 1906. While the First Nations have an oral history of the negotiations which indicate that the treaty was simply one of ‘peace and friendship,’ the federal government believes that something much more was represented in the treaty’s terms. However, its corporate memory does not include an historical understanding of what those terms would have meant at the time of signing. This research will explore the context under which the terms were drafted by the federal and Ontario governments and thus elucidate the governments’ understanding of the treaty negotiation process at the turn of the 20th century. Ideas such as the “King’s protection,” “bounty and benevolence,” and “obeying the law” will be discussed, as well as the hunting and fishing clauses, education and reserves.
  2. Aboriginal Treaty Rights and cultural colonization: The Technologies of Treaty #9. The purpose of this research is to build on the conclusions drawn from the first project and trace, through various technologies such as the pen, the canoe, and the survey map, how the idea of the treaty being a document for colonization came to be disseminated to the broader provincial and Canadian public.
  3. Aboriginal Treaty Rights and state formation: Treaties #3 and #9 and the role of surveyors and engineers in the expansion of the liberal state. This research will examine Ian McKay’s seminal article on his “Liberal Order Framework” and how it affected Canadian understandings of Aboriginal title to land. It focuses on surveyors, who acting on behalf of the state, went into Aboriginal homelands and transformed them, through their maps and reports, into resource hinterlands ripe for development.

Publications

Books

2007

  • The Culture of Hunting, principal editor, Vancouver: UBC Press, pp.276

1999

  • Cross-Currents:  Hydro-electricity and the Engineering of Northern Ontario, Waterloo:  Wilfrid Laurier University Press, pp.209.

Book Chapters and Journal Articles from 2000

2011

  • “The Historical Erasure of an Indigenous Identity in the Borderlands:  The Western Abenaki of Vermont, New Hampshire, and Quebec,” in Journal of Borderlands Studies, Vol.26: no.2, (August, 2011), pp.179-196.

2010

  • Liberalism and the Numbered Treaties, Aboriginal Policy Research: a History of Treaties and Policy, Jerry B. White et al., eds., Toronto:  Thompson Educational Publishing, Vol.VII, pp.41-57

2007

  • “Modernity’s Contested Terrains of space and place:  Hunting and Algonquin Park, 1890-1950,” in The Culture of Hunting, Jean L. Manore and Dale G. Miner, eds., Vancouver:  UBC Press, chp.9, pp.121-147.

2006

  • “Rivers as Text: From Pre-Modern to Post-Modern Understandings of Development, Technology and the Environment in Canada and Abroad,” in A History of Water, The World of Water, Vol.III, T.Tvedt and T. Oestigaard, eds., London: I.B. Taurus & Co. Ltd., pp.229-253.

2003

  • “The Construction of Rivers and Community Transformation:  An Alternative History of the St. Francis River,” in Journal of the Eastern Townships, No.23, Fall/Automne, 2003, pp.27-40.

2001

  • “The Promise of Hydro?  Comparative and contrasting hydro-electric development in Ontario and Quebec,” in Canada Confederation to Present, Chris Hackett and Robert Hesketh eds., CD-Rom, Edmonton: Chinook Multimedia Productions.

2000

  • “Indian Reserves vs. Indian lands:  Contrasting Views of Reserves, Crown Lands and Natural Resource Use in northeastern Ontario, 1906-1990,” in Ontario since Confederation, Edgar-Andre Montigny and Lori Chambers eds., Toronto: University of Toronto Press, pp. 195-213.

Conference Papers and Reports from 2000

Papers

2011

  • Treaty #3 and the interactions of landscape and memory in the Rainy River area during the late nineteenth century, CHA, New Brunswick.« Le Traité no 9 et la perméabilité des frontières entre les rapports oraux et écrits des négociations, » Paper to be presented at the ACFAS Annual Conference, May, Sherbrooke ACFAS Sherbrooke.

2010

  • “Treaties as tools for modern state formation?  Aboriginal arguments to the contrary in Treaty #3 and #9” American Society for Ethnohistory, Ottawa.

2009

  • “Indigeneity meets Industrialism: Contrasting and Colliding Views of a Canadian northern hinterland, 1870-1930” forthcoming (August), International Congress on Environmental History, Copenhagen.
  • “Liberalism and The Numbered Treaties,” Aboriginal Policy Research Conference, Ottawa: Indian and Northern Affairs Canada/University of Western Ontario.

2007

  • “Treaty 9 and the Borderland of Northern Ontario: Liberalism, Colonialism and Native Resistance to State Expansion,” Canadian Historical Association Annual Conference, University of Saskatchewan.

2006

  • “Treaty 9:  Is it or is it not part of Canada’s ‘Liberal Order Framework?’” Wahnapitae Annual Aboriginal Conference, Temagami Ontario.

2005

  • “Foreigners in their own Land: The erasure of Abenaki history in the Eastern Townships,” for Canadian Historical Association Annual Meeting, University of Western Ontario.
  • “Professing an interest in First Nations History: Reflections on Teaching and Researching Native/settler Relations in a Canadian University” for “First Nations, First Thoughts,” School of Canadian Studies Annual Conference, Edinburgh.

2003

  • “The Technology of Rivers and Community Transformation:  An Alternative History of the St. Francis,” ETRC annual conference, Bishop’s University.

2001

  • Modernity’s Contested Terrains of space and place:  Hunting and Algonquin Park, 1890-1950,” Canadian Historical Association Annual Meeting, Laval.
  • “Rivers as text: from pre-modern to post-modern understandings of development, technology and the environment in Canada and abroad,” International Water History Association Conference, Bergen, Norway.

Research Reports

2008

  • “The Numbered Treaties,” Report prepared for Treaty Policy Directorate, Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, pp.250.
  • Kanai First Nation First Nation Specific Claim re WWII Bombing and Gunnery Range, pp.62 plus appendices.
  • TLE Review: North Caribou Lake First Nation, pp.65, Joint Research for Specific Claims, Indian and Northern Affairs and Ontario Native Affairs Secretariat.
  • Island Claim re: Fawn Island, 36pp. plus appendices; Surrenders for Timber, 42pp. plus appendices; Dock and Sawmill, 17pp. plus appendices.

2004

  • Munsee-Delaware First Nation Reserve Allocation Claim, for Specific Claims, Department of Indian and Northern Affairs, 85pp. plus appendices.
  • “Overview of Euro-Canadian Understandings of Treaty #9, 22pp., for Treaty Policy and Review, Department of Indian and Northern Affairs.
  • “Mohawks of Akwesasne Specific Claim to Cairn Island,” Research Report for the Department of Indian and Northern Affairs, pp.19 plus appendices.

2003

  • “Pabineau First Nation Specific Land Claim to Gould Island,” Research Report for the Department of Indian And Northern Affairs, pp.49 plus appendices.
  • “Walpole Island First Nation Claim to Peche (Peach) Island,” Research Report for the Department of Indian and Northern Affairs, pp.46 plus appendices.

2002

  • “Sandy Lake First Nation Treaty Land Entitlement Review,”  Research Report for the Ontario Native Affairs Secretariat, pp.75 plus appendices.

2001

  • “Eabametoong First Nation Treaty Land Entitlement Review,” Research Report for Department of Indian and Northern Affairs, Canada and the Ontario Native Affairs Secretariat, pp.120 plus appendices.

2000

  • “Chapleau Ojibway First Nation Treaty Land Entitlement Review,” Research Report for Department of Indian and Northern Affairs, Canada and the Ontario Native Affairs Secretariat, pp.109 plus appendices.
  • “Missanabie Cree Land Entitlement” and “Chapleau Cree Land Entitlement,”  Research Reports for the Ontario Native Affairs Secretariat, pp.24 and 18.
  • “Treaty 9:  Its origins and interpretations,” Report for the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, pp.100.
Photo of Dr. David Webster

Dr. David Webster

Associate Professor

David Webster (Ph.D. British Columbia 2005) teaches international and Asian history topics with a focus on the 20th century. He came to Bishop’s in 2012 by way of positions in Toronto, San Francisco and Regina. His book Fire and the Full Moon: Canada and Indonesia in a Decolonizing World (UBC Press, 2009) examines Canada-Indonesia relations from 1945 to 1999 at both government and civil society levels.…Contact Information and full bio
Phone: 819-822-9600 ext. 2384

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David Webster (Ph.D. British Columbia 2005) teaches international and Asian history topics with a focus on the 20th century. He came to Bishop’s in 2012 by way of positions in Toronto, San Francisco and Regina. His book Fire and the Full Moon: Canada and Indonesia in a Decolonizing World (UBC Press, 2009) examines Canada-Indonesia relations from 1945 to 1999 at both government and civil society levels. Previously he was collection editor of East Timor” Testimony (Between the Lines, 2004). His research, funded by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council, concentrates on trans-Pacific interactions between Canada and Asia, and on the diplomacy of independence movements in Asia.

Research

Dr. Webster’s research is focused on trans-Pacific interactions between Canada and Asia, especially in the realms of diplomacy, religion and economic development; and the transnational diplomatic identities of movements for independence around the Pacific Rim, especially in Timor-Leste (East Timor) and Indonesia. He has three major current projects:

Modern Missionaries: Canadian Development Advisors in Southeast Asia, 1945-65

Postwar Canadian approaches to Asia were often in the non-governmental realm, drawing on the country’s missionary heritage. While diplomats in Ottawa worked for pro-Western states in the political realm, Canadian policies on economic development also aimed at building new states in the Canadian image. Canadians in government, transnational and non-governmental positions offered their own country as a model.

The international experts called together by the UN Technical Assistance Administration were central to Canadian postwar hopes and aspirations. The Administration, headed by Canadian civil servant Hugh Keenleyside, also included staff member George Cadbury, previously director of the Saskatchewan CCF government’s Economic Planning Board. It was individual Canadian technical advisers like these who offered the hands-on advice and played the crucial role in shaping policy taken by Southeast Asian states. These “modern missionaries” imagined themselves as part of a transnational community, one in which Canada could play a leadership role by being an active member of multilateral organizations.

L’action canadienne d’après-guerre en Asie s’est souvent déroulée en marge des interventions gouvernementales, faisant appel à la charité missionnaire. Sur le plan politique, Ottawa favorisait l’ouverture des États sur l’Occident, tandis que sur le plan économique, ses politiques visaient à encourager l’avènement de nouveaux États à l’image du Canada. Les Canadiens oeuvrant dans les secteurs gouvernemental, transnational et non gouvernemental offraient alors leur propre pays en exemple.

Par leur travail, les conseillers techniques canadiens ont joué un rôle déterminant et apporté les conseils pratiques nécessaires pour orienter la destinée des États du sud-est asiatique. Ces « missionnaires modernes » se voyaient membres d’une collectivité transnationale au sein de laquelle le Canada pouvait occuper une place prééminente en s’engageant activement dans plusieurs organisations multilatérales. Aux côtés de l’ONU, le Canada mettait ses espoirs d’après-guerre dans les experts internationaux réunis par l’Administration de l’assistance technique des Nations unies, sous la houlette du fonctionnaire canadien Hugh Keenleyside et d’une équipe dont était membre George Cadbury, ancien dirigeant du Conseil de planification économique du gouvernement CCF de la Saskatchewan.

Notion-States: Non-State Diplomacy on the Pacific Rim

This project studies the ideas and activities independence movements in maritime Southeast Asia (Indonesia, Malaysia and Timor-Leste) and the Southwest Pacific, from the early twentieth century to the present. A series of “notion-states” emerged in each case, before the creation of a nation-state. This is a study, therefore, in the formation of national identity and in the way new nations asserted themselves internationally.

A “notion-state” is a group of people who come to consider themselves as a nation before acquiring a state, with members of the notion-state trying to win international support and recognition. That diplomatic campaign in turn affects the way the prospective nation is imagined.

To illustrate by example: the former Portuguese colony of Timor-Leste (East Timor) was invaded and occupied by the armed forces of neighbouring Indonesia from 1975 to 1999, gaining independence in 2002. During that occupation, a group of ethnically and linguistically diverse peoples came to consider themselves a single Timorese nation, in the course of shared suffering and resistance to Indonesian rule. Timorese independence campaigners first tried to copy the model of “third world” liberation movements pioneered in Africa. This combined guerrilla resistance inside the territory and a “diplomatic front” that tried to win the support of the international community and disrupt Indonesia’s own overseas diplomatic, economic and military support. The diplomatic front gained primacy with a successful effort to disrupt Indonesia’s international alliances, using the language of human rights and a global indigenous “fourth world.” This approach conferred greater ability to build transnational alliances in the “first world” of developed North America, Europe and Australia. International developments in turn played a crucial role in altering East Timorese identity. Before becoming an independent nation-state, East Timorese came to think of themselves as a notion-state, “already independent” and alive in the minds of its people, both inside the territory and in a global diaspora.

Canadian Churches and the trans-Pacific

The role of religion cannot be overlooked in international affairs. From the great Christian missionary enterprise to Asia in the 19th century, in which Canadians played a major role, to the “clash of civilizations” rhetoric that informs today’s “war on terror,” relations between states and societies have been deeply informed by religious flows, currents and clashes. Scholars are paying increasing attention internationally to the role of non-state actors, including religious organizations, in historical and contemporary foreign policy. Meanwhile, Canada’s relations with Asia in the political, economic, and social fields are more and more important. This informs a growing area of study about the history of Canada-Asia interactions.

This project addresses the role of Canadian churches in shaping Canadian foreign relations, especially with Asia. Did Canadian churches have their own “Asia policy” distinct from the Canadian government? If so, how did it interact with state policy? Without seeing the place of religious organizations in Canada’s foreign relations, we cannot come to a full understanding of Canada’s place in the world. Two Canadian church coalitions illustrate these themes in Canada-Asia relations: the Canada China Programme and the Canada Asia Working Group. They were proactive, autonomous foreign policy actors occupying a space between Canadian churches, the Canadian government, and Asian partner organizations who themselves had shifting relations with their own governments. A study of these organizations contributes to our understanding of non-state influences on foreign policy and the interplay of religion and international relations history.

Publications

Fire and the Full Moon: Canada and Indonesia in a Decolonizing World (Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 2009).

“Development Advisors in a Time of Cold War and Decolonization: The UN Technical Assistance Administration, 1950-1959,” Journal of Global History 6 no. 2 (2011): 249-272.

“Petrolio, Imperi e Nazionalismo Economico: il Saskatchewan e l’Indonesia a confront, 1944-1963” [“Oil, empire and economic nationalism in Saskatchewan and Indonesia, 1944-63,”] 900: Per una storia del tempo presente (Italy) no. 4 (2011): 59-83.

“Canada and Bilateral Human Rights Dialogues,” Canadian Foreign Policy 16 no. 3 (2010): 43-63.

“Self-fulfilling prophecies and human rights in Canada’s foreign policy: the case of East Timor,” International Journal 65 no. 3 (2010): 739-750. Winner of Marvin Gelber award for best article in journal by a junior scholar, 2010.

“Modern Missionaries: Canadian Postwar Technical Assistance Advisors in Southeast Asia,” Journal of the Canadian Historical Association 20 no. 2 (2009): 86-111.

“Canadian Catholics and the East Timor Struggle, 1975-99,” Historical Studies 75 (2009): 63-82. Winner of Paul Bator award for best article in journal, 2008-09.

“Regimes in Motion: The Kennedy Administration and Indonesia’s New Frontier, 1960-1962,” Diplomatic History 33 no. 1 (January 2009): 92-123.

“History, Nation and Narrative in East Timor’s Truth Commission Report,” Pacific Affairs 80 #4 (2007): 581-91.

“From Sabang to Merauke: Nationalist Separation Movements in Indonesia,” Asia Pacific Viewpoint 48 no. 1 (April 2007): 85-93.

“Dari Sabang sampai Merauke: Gerakan Pemisahan Nasionalis di Indonesia” [“From Sabang to Merauke: Nationalist Separation Movements in Indonesia,”] in Drama Indonesia: Ketidakpastian di Tengah Globabalisasi [Indonesian Drama: Uncertainty in a Globalizing World] eds. Geoffrey Hainsworth & Bakti Setiawan (Yogyakarta, Indonesia: Gadjah Mada University Press, 2006).

“Islam and Cold War Modernization in the Formative Years of the McGill Institute of Islamic Studies,” International Journal of Canadian Studies 32 (2005): 15-43.